AI in the Classroom: ChatGPT's Role in Modernizing Teaching Practices

28 May 2024


(1) Fabiano Villan, Universidade Luterana do Brasil (ULBRA), Curso de Licenciatura em Física;

(2) Renato P. dos Santos, Universidade Luterana do Brasil (ULBRA), PPG em Ensino de Ciências e Matemática (PPGECIM).



Theoretical Framework

The ZPD and Chat GPT as a Co-Advisor in Scientific Guidance


Results and Analysis

Conclusions, Acknowledgements, Author's Contribution Statement, Data Availability Statement





In the contemporary educational landscape, characterized by a rising demand for integrated practical and theoretical skills, challenges emerge to adopt innovative approaches that enrich students' learning journey (Aureliano & Queiroz, 2023). Pedagogical evolution, driven by technological innovation, becomes an urgent necessity to meet the demands of the 21st century (Rodrigues, 2021). To meet this demand, educators must become flexible and innovative professionals, capable of integrating active methodologies with technologies, to provide transformative and meaningful learning experiences (Aureliano & Queiroz, 2023).

In this context, Paulo Freire emphasized that

“There is no teaching without learning, the two explain each other, and their subjects, despite the differences that denote them, are not reduced to the condition of object, one of the other. Those who teach learn in teaching, and those who learn teach in learning.” (Freire, 1996, p. 25)

For this author, this continuous interaction reinforces the central role of the educator in the learning journey.

In this panorama, Generative Artificial Intelligence (GenAI) emerges, a category of AI that, unlike merely analysing data, creates original content, such as texts or images, based on what it has learned. Well-known examples of GenAI applications include ChatGPT and BingChat, among others, which appear as promising educational allies, broadening thematic horizons and deepening the learning process.

ChatGPT, when integrated with the Problem-Based Learning (PBL) methodology, has the potential to enrich the educational experience, aligning with Vygotsky's ideas (1991), expanding students' Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) and contributing to the professional development of teachers.

Thus, an innovative approach is proposed to promote meaningful and interdisciplinary learning, by using ChatGPT to explore contemporary themes that can go beyond the traditional training of educators.

However, many educators show resistance to adopting these technologies. The reluctance is often grounded in the perception that such innovations may stray from the true educational purpose or in the hesitation to abandon traditional practices. Therefore, understanding this resistance becomes the central problem of this research.

The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of ChatGPT as a coadvisor in elementary school science fair projects. Through the lens of Vygotsky's ideas about the facilitator role of the educator, it seeks to understand how the conscious incorporation of advanced technologies can shape teaching practices and influence the quality of contemporary education, while exploring the challenges and resistances faced by educators in integrating new technologies into their practices.

This paper is available on arxiv under CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 DEED license.